Saturday, March 26, 2011

BOOK REVIEW: Conversations with Myself

Thanks to Liberty Books for the review copy

Published in Daily Times / Saturday, March 26, 2011

Reviewed by Afrah Jamal

Mandela is known for playing two distinct roles in his lifetime. One was as Prisoner 466/64 on the infamous Robben Island (now a UN World Heritage Site); the other was becoming the first president of a democratic South Africa. He received worldwide accolades for making both performances memorable. Since 2009, July 18 has been declared the Nelson Mandela International Day for freedom, justice and democracy.

Mandela — described as an “obsessive record keeper”, can now add another chapter to his extensive legacy; one that will give the world an opportunity to use his own words as the key to decipher his original message. Conversations with Myself is a compilation of private papers, prison letters, speeches, taped conversations with a fellow prisoner (Ahmed Kathrada), excerpts of interviews given to TIME magazine editor Richard Stengel, and a draft of an unpublished sequel to his autobiography. They have been put together by Verne Harris — Project Leader (Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and Dialogue). President Obama, an ardent admirer (one of many), has been chosen to write the foreword.

These documents provide useful insights into the life of a visionary who served a 27-year sentence, helped unite a land once torn by apartheid and demonstrated the healing power of reconciliation. Mandela ‘up close and personal’ cuts an impressive figure who hastens to push aside the halo many would like to confer on him. Since this is an unrehearsed presentation, it gives the world a unique opportunity to get reacquainted with one of the greatest icons of the present century, on his turf. His most remarkable characteristics (integrity, honour, magnanimity) take centre-stage while lesser known traits emerge from the shadows.

It is an extraordinarily moving portrait of a man shown to bear his heavy burden with ease: “....only the flesh and blood behind bars, I remain cosmopolitan in my outlook, in my thoughts I am as free as a falconeven as he makes eloquent arguments asking for release. Yet Mandela the man is fallible, he pleads guilty to lesser charges — of harbouring secret prejudices, of uncertainty, admitting that he always sees the good in others. Within these pages he confesses to battling with DDD (debility, dependency and dread). He is humble, claiming to be unworthy of penning his life story: “What a sweet euphuism for self-praise the English language has evolved! Autobiography.” He is proud, refusing to allow outsiders inside his private world.

Mandela the father yearns for his family; the freedom fighter in him gets frustrated watching good people sacrifice lives “on the fiendish altar of colour hatred”; the Wiseman counsels his kin not to harvest bitterness.

His concern for his family looms large in the narrative as he writes heartfelt letters to his children filled with beautiful passages where his optimism struggles to cut through the hopelessness knowing that these words might never reach their destination. He continues to fight for his rights with the only tools available, finding humour in the most desolate of places. At one point he dreams of inviting the magistrate to dinner while wryly observing the fact that paying for said dinner could well pose a problem.

Including Mandela’s prison correspondence provides an acute sense of his suffering. He dwells on his harrowing ordeal and details the “abuse of authority, systematic persecution”, which he concluded were officially sanctioned. Despite the grim circumstances, somehow the underlying message remains hopeful. The word ‘vengeance’ is missing from his vocabulary and he tries to sow the seeds of forgiveness in his family members. Throughout his ordeal he remains convinced that “the floods of personal disaster can never drown a determined revolutionary, nor can the cumulus of misery that accompany tragedy suffocate him.”

He offers similar words of encouragement to his wife, also imprisoned:

Those without a soul, no sense of national pride and no ideals to win can suffer neither humiliation nor defeat; can evolve no national heritage, are inspired by no sacred mission and can produce no national heroes or martyrs.”

One second he is the Sun Tzu of guerrilla warfare elaborating on the tactics used as a freedom fighter, or holding forth on the qualities of a good leader, and the next moment he can hardly contain his disappointment on missing a Tracy Chapman and Manhattan Brothers concert.

Equally interesting are his thoughts post-imprisonment that spell out, among other things, ways of dealing with fellow humans: “One tends to attract integrity and honour if that is how one regards those with whom one works,” adding that “public figures need to accept the integrity of other people until there is evidence to the contrary.

One last surprise: this Mandela uses a Garfield the Cat personalised notepaper.

It is all in here — the humour, the heartbreak and the hope. These are the pillars of Mandela’s life’s work from prison to presidency. These are the makings of a great leader. The cost of doing things the ‘Mandela Way’ has been high but so have the dividends and he remains a source of inspiration for many.

Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Pp 480; Rs 2,500

Images Courtesy of: http://www.bewajah.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Nelson-Mandela-in-Prison.jpg

http://edudemic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/quill.jpg

http://krackedkillers.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/prison-bars-image.gif

Saturday, March 12, 2011

BOOK REVIEW: Witness to Life and Freedom: Margaret Bourke-White in India and Pakistan

Thanks to Liberty Books for the review copy

Reviewed by: Afrah Jamal
Author: Pramod Kapoor

Published in Daily Times / 12 March 2011

Margaret Bourke-White came to India to “bear witness to the fall of the British Empire”. Partition was still a year away and her lens, set aglow from its dying embers was trained towards the brewing conflagration that was to set the region ablaze. Margaret, who has been called the “finest woman photographer of her time”, was commissioned by LIFE magazine to cover the “exchange of population”.

Pramod Kapoor, founder/publisher Roli Books, came across a selection of historically significant photographs taken by Margaret in Pakistan and India and decided to weave them into a fresh narrative. Witness to Life and Freedom reopens an old chapter adding facets of the freedom struggle seen from a unique vantage point. These, together with previously unpublished images taken over two years (1946-1948), chronicling the death and destruction left in the wake of partition amplify distant shockwaves from a traumatic past that was shunted aside to make room for (what was to be) a better future.

Margaret’s biographer Vicki Goldberg notes that these images are her most sustained body of work “offering a kind of stately, classical view of misery, of humanity at its most wretched, yet somehow noble, somehow beautiful”. Rare glimpses into the past, fleeting though they are, bring with them an acute sense of loss.

Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971) described in The Digital Digest as a “trailblazer in twentieth century photojournalism” has impressive credentials and a series of firsts before her name — she was among the first wave of photojournalists taken on board LIFE magazine and her work was featured on LIFE’s first cover. She is also credited to be the first female photographer to cover war (during WWII), and was on the scene of a freshly liberated concentration camp.

The book charts the course of Margaret’s extraordinary career using snippets from her own books and her biographer’s words to showcase the pioneering spirit that calmly walked besides migrating convoys even as death was reaping the souls of people somewhere around the bend. This section is not for the faint-hearted.

Also included are some iconic images of the men who led the movement and Ms Goldberg projects specific characteristics on M A Jinnah, Pakistan’s founding father, and Gandhi, the Indian idol. About one she will declare, “Margaret composes an icon for a secular saint, humble, meditative, graced by light and accompanied by his symbolic spinning wheel much as western saints are accompanied by their emblems.” This would be Gandhi. The other she dismisses as a leader “whose features were as sharp as the creases in his western business suit” and attempts to cast him in as unflattering a light as possible. She casually throws in some provocative lines (“we shall have India divided or we shall have India destroyed”) and concludes, “Jinnah fulfilled the first part of his vow and came close to fulfilling the second”.

Margaret’s own words mirror the bias and seem to imply that the killing fields of Calcutta as a result of Direct Action Day 1946 (when Muslim League’s peaceful protests turned deadly) were part of a premeditated plan when she notes how Jinnah’s press statement “was in the form of a monologue delivered in an icy voice — a forecast of the fiery events to come”. Add to that the sight of him lashing out in “his flat chilled monotone” and the sketch is ready. But it is a poor likeness.

Suddenly, a man of peace known for taking up a principled stance becomes a disturbing footnote in the most important production of the 20th century, while Gandhi gets star billing. Were these words taken out of context or invented? Asif Noorani, who reviewed this book for another newspaper (December 5, 2010 edition), calls out Ms Goldberg for misquoting Mr Jinnah. But, in the end, the camera’s unerring eye turns out to be the most reliable witness. The images convey the triumph and tragedy and while death is the reigning theme, the indomitable human spirit provides the central storyline.

Roli Books; Pp 142; Rs 995
Available in Liberty Books